Even before the outbreak of World War I, aviation had made its presence felt in the East Riding of Yorkshire, with visits from many of the leading aviation pioneers including Gustav Hamel and Harry Hawker. However, it was the outbreak of the war in 1914 and the arrival of the German Zeppelins that led to the establishment of the first official air bases in the area. In fact the first enemy attacks upon Yorkshire from the German navy was when they bombarded Scarborough and Whitby on December 16, 1914. On June 6, 1915, threat became reality when a Zeppelin bombed Hull, killing 24 people and injuring 40. For the next four years the landing grounds and marine stations in the East Riding served as bases for British aircraft and airships which were defending the East Riding towns and coastal shipping from air and sea attack.